Make sure to read an overview about Citations to ensure you have a clear understanding of the multiple citation formats required by different disciplines. See this Writer’s Handbook page for a good overview. See the APA website for tutorials.

APA format

This page includes examples of how to cite using APA format, relying on the book, The world is flat (Friedman, 2005).  Note, APA format requires you to cite within the body of the text, as soon as you introduce a source (in-text or parenthetical) as well as at the end, in a compiled References Page.

In-Text Examples

The source of the new concept of a flat world is cited within the sentence:

The 21st Century is characterized by the “flat world” (Friedman, 2005) in which barriers among countries, communities, and citizens no longer exist or are flattened.  As a result, professionals must prepare for the threat of outsourcing.

Citation of paraphrased material allows a reader to locate the material within a work, such as a page or paragraph number.

The cheaper and smarter producer will win out over America, so Americans should have good service skills (Friedman, 2005, p. 14).

A short, direct quote is cited within the text below without a signal phrase.

Professionals “better be good at the touchy-feely service” (Freidman, 2005, p. 14) skills if they want to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

A long, exact selection from The World is Flat is quoted directly in a block. Note the location of the citation:

A discussion with Rao leads Friedman to realize people skills will save a professional’s career:

What you’re telling me, I said to Rao, is that ,

no matter what your profession-doctor, lawyer, architect,

accountant-if you are an American, you better be good

at the touchy-feely service stuff, because anything

that can be digitized can be outsourced to either the smartest

or the cheapest producer, or both.  (Friedman, 2005, p. 14)

References List

The text that is cited in the written project is cited in the  Reference List:

Freidman, T. (2005). The world is flat.  New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.