Engineering Styles: ChemE often uses AlChE; Civ and EnvironE often use ASCE; CompSci & EN use ACM; ElecE and Aero use IEEE; MechE often uses ASME.

AuthorAll authors are Last Name, First Initial.
use & in reference and in parenthetical intext.
Use full first names. The first author has name inverted, but all the rest are in regular order.First Initial Last name followed by comma. List first 6 authors then use et al.
Date2nd place in citation
Do not abbreviate months
Nearly last place in citation
Abbreviate months
Nearly last place in citation. Abbreviate months.
Article TitleLower case followed by periodUpper case and use ” ” with period inside ” “Lower case, use ” ”
with comma inside ” “
Periodical TitleUpper case ItalicsUpper case and ItalicsUpper case and italics
Website title not italics
Periodical Volume and NumberDo not use the terms vol. and no. Italicize vol # but not no. # Use ( ).Use terms vol. and no.
Not in italics
Use terms vol. and no.
Not in italics
Page #Do not use p or pp in reference, but use in in-text citationuse p or pp. in works cited but not in in-text citationuse p or pp. in works cited but not in in-text citation
DOI or
use https://
no access date
Do not use https://
use access date
use https://
and access date or for some sites just [Online].
List of sourcesTitled : References
List in alphabetical order
Titled: Works Cited
List in alphabetical order
Title: References
Number references in order of first mention in text
In-text(Author, Year, p.)Author page (no comma, no p.)Use [1] numbers in brackets and in line with text before the period

APA Reference Citation

MLA Works Cited

Engineering Stylesheets: Examples below

Chemical Engineering uses AlChE

Pedron, S., et. al., “Synthesis and characterization of degradable bioconjugated hydrogels with hyperbranched multifunctional cross-linkers,” Acta Biomaterialia6 (11), pp. 4189-4198 (Nov. 2010).

Garner, G. O., “Careers in Engineering,” 2nd ed., VGM Career Books, Chicago, IL (2003).

Homoki, G. G., and K. N. Vernekar, “Materials Selections for Sludge Incinerator Heat Exchangers,” in “Materials Performance in Waste Incineration Systems,” G. Y. Lai and G. Sorell, Eds., NACE International, Houston, TX, pp. 20-1 to 20-8 (1992).

Perry, R. H., and D. W. Green, Eds., “Mass Transfer and Gas Absorption,” Chapter 14, in “Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook,” 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York (1984).

Civil and Environmental Engineering use ASCE

Aanen, P. (1991). Nature engineering and civil engineering works, H. W. Knottnerus, translator, Pudoc, Wageningen, Netherlands.

ABAQUS/Explicit update manual, version 5.6. (1996). Hibbitt, Karlsson and Sorenson Inc., Pawtucket, R.I.

“Acoustic strain gauge’s ease bridge monitoring .” (1997). CivilEngrg. ASCE, 67(9), 83.

Al-Mutairi, N. M.. (1995) “Kuwait oil-based pollution: effect on building material.” J. of Matls. in Civil Engrg., ASCE, 7(3), 154-160.

ASTM. (1981). “Standard method of testing piles under static axial compressive load.”  D1143-81, Philadelphia, Pa.

Barragy, E., Walters, R., and Carey, G. F.  (1995). “Tital simulation using conjugate gradient methods.” Finite Element Modeling of Environmental Problems: Surface and Subsurface Flow and Transport, G. F. Carey, ed., Wiley, West Sussex, Eng., 115-135.

Computer Science & Engineering use ACM

Hoffman, W.M. and Moore, J.M., Eds. Ethics and the Management of Computer Technology. Oelgeschlager, Gunn and Hain, Cambridge, Mass., 1982.

Parker, R. Lotus copyright protection is turning into a feeding frenzy. Infoworld 12,28 (Jul. 1990), 42-49.

Rumbaugh, J.E. Controlling propagation of operations using attributes on Relations. In Proceedings of OOPSLA ’86 (Sept. 29-Oct. 2, Portland,Oreg.). ACM/SIGPLAN, New York, 1986, pp. 406-416.

Electrical Engineering uses IEEE

[1] J. W. DuBois, S. Schuetze-Coburn, S. Cumming, and D. Paolino, “Outline of discourse transcription,” in Talking Data: Transcription and Coding in Discourse Research (J. A. Edwards and M. D. Lampert, Eds.). Hillsdale, NJ:   Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993, pp. 45-89.

[2] R. C. Carter, “Search time with a color display: Analysis of distribution functions,” Human Factors, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 302-304, 1982.

[3] P. Leone, D. L. Gillihan, and T. L. Rauch, “Web-based prototyping for user sessions: Medium-fidelity prototyping,” in Proc. 44th Int. Technical Communications Conf. (Toronto, Canada, May 11-14, 1997), pp. 231-234.

In-text citations are part of text in [ ] and can be used alone or with the author’s name.

E.g. … is well supported [1], [2].

As Smith [1] reported…. or …..as described in [1], [4]-[7].

Mechanical Engineering uses ASME

[1] Ning, X., and Lovell, M. R., 2002, “On the Sliding Friction Characteristics of Unidirectional Continuous FRP Composites,” ASME J. Tribol., 124(1), pp. 5-13.
[2] Barnes, M., 2001, “Stresses in Solenoids,” J. Appl. Phys., 48(5), pp. 2000–2008.
[3] Jones, J., 2000, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, Chap. 6.
[4] Lee, Y., Korpela, S. A., and Horne, R. N., 1982, “Structure of Multi-Cellular Natural Convection in a Tall Vertical Annulus,” Proc. 7th International Heat Transfer Conference, U. Grigul et al., eds., Hemisphere, Washington, DC, 2, pp. 221–226.