: to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own : use (another’s production) without crediting the source
from Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary
Plagiarism is a serious intellectual offense. However, if you are aware of what constitutes plagiarism, and strive to avoid it, there is nothing to be worried about.
Here are four common types of plagiarism:
Direct plagiarism occurs when a student copies the work of another author verbatim without citing the source and without using quotation marks. Think “Cut-and-Paste”.
from Bowdoin College: An Example of Direct Plagiarism
Self-plagiarism occurs when a student “Recycles” material from another one of his or her own papers without citing that paper as a source.
Mosaic plagiarism occurs when a student “Cherry-picks” words, phrases or more general concepts from another source, then finds synonyms or changes the wording slightly, without acknowledging the source.
from Bowdoin College: An Example of Mosaic Plagiarism
Accidental plagiarism occurs when a student forgets or neglects to properly cite his sources. Not knowing what constitutes plagiarism, making errors in attribution, or simply forgetting still results in an offense.
- Did I know this information without having to look it up?
- Are there data or images I did not produce?
- Is this an idea that is not my own?
General Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism
Read the Source in its Entirety
- It’s easy to take something out of context if you only read a portion of it! If you read the entire source, you should have a better understanding of the author’s meaning.
Take Detailed Notes as you Read
- Anytime you note something word-for-word, immediately place it in quotation marks. Also note what page or section you found it on.
- On each page, make sure you note the original source and the date you accessed the source. This will make citation much easier, especially if you are working with multiple sources or doing research over a long stretch of time.
- Try not to mix your own thoughts and commentary with excerpts from your source. Keep them on separate pages, draw two columns on your page, or switch your pen color.
- If you find it difficult to take notes with electronic sources – or if you find yourself drawn to the copy-paste method – print out your sources and deal with them in print form.
Consult with the Experts
- If you need a second opinion, ask! Ask a librarian, the Writing Center, or your professor.
You Should Cite When
- Referring to a source and stating someone else’s opinions, thoughts, ideas, or research
- Using an image or media file that you did not create
When Referring to a Source, you have Three Options
- Directly Quoting
“Which option you should choose depends on how much of a source you are using, how you are using it, and what kind of paper you are writing, since different fields use sources in different ways.” Grounds for Argument. When to Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize a Source. Used under CC BY NC SA
You Do Not Need to Cite
- Your thoughts and your interpretations
- Common knowledge